This is a simple attempt by an ordinary Muslim to portray the Islam, unblemished by violence, politics, sectarian divides and misinterpretations. This Blog is against all racism and condemnations of any religion or race. Islam teaches us to respect everyone regardless of their beliefs and ethnicity. Any discussion based here will purely be a sincere and respectful dialogue.Lastly, i do not seek to interpret or make fatwas here. I strictly abide by the verdicts of pious Ulamas.

My name is Rizuan and neither am I an Ulema nor an Aalim. I am just a slave in need of Allah's blessings.

 

Story of Luqman (Stories of the Quran)

Allah the Almighty says:

{And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman AIHikmah (wisdom and

religious understanding) saying: “Give thanks to Allah.”And whoever

gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) his own self. And

whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All-Rich (Free of all needs),

Worthy of all praise. And (remember) when Luqman said to his son

when he was advising him: “O my son! Join not in worship others with

Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm

(wrong) indeed. And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good)

to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon

weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years -give thanks

to Me and to our parents. Unto Me is the final destination. But if they

(both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that

of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with

them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in

repentance and in obedience.Then to Me will be your return, and I shall

tell you what you used to do. “O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the

weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the

heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle

(in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place). “O my son!

Aqim-As-Salat (perform As-Salat), enjoin (on people) Al-Ma’ruf

(Islamic Monotheism and all that is good), and forbid (people) from Al-

Munkar (i.e. disbelief in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists of all kinds

and all that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befalls

you. Verily, these are some of the important commandments (ordered

by Allah with no exemption). “And turn not your face away from men

with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes

not any arrogant boaster.” “And be moderate (or show no insolence) in

your walking and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is

the braying of the ass”}. (Luqman, 12-19)

He is Luqman Ibn ‘Anqa’ Ibn Sadun. Or, as stated by As-Suhaili from Ibn

Jarir and Al-Qutaibi that he is Luqman Ibn Tharan who was from among the

people of Aylah (Jerusalem).

He was a pious man who exerted himself in worship and who was blessed

with wisdom. Also, it is said that he was a judge during the lifetime of Prophet

Dawud (Peace be upon him). And, Allah knows best.

Narrated Sufyan Ath- Thawri from Al-Ash’ath after ‘Ikrimah on the authority

of Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) as saying: He was an Ethiopian

slave who worked as a carpenter. Qatadah narrated from’ Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubair

as saying: I asked Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah about Luqman. He said: “He was short

with a flat nose. He was from Nubia”

Narrated Yahia Ibn Sa’ id Al-Ansari after Sa’ id Ibn Al-Musayib his saying:

Luqman belonged to the black men of Egypt. He had thick lips and Allah the

Almighty granted him wisdom but not Prophethood. Al-Awza’i said: I was told by

'Abdur Rahman Ibn Harmalah: that a black man came to Sa' id Ibn AIMusayib

asking him for charity. Sa’ id said: do not feel distressed for your black color

because there were from among the best of all people three blackmen: Bilal Ibn

Rabah, Mahja’ (the freed-slave of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab), and Luqman, the wise

who was black, from Nubia and whose lips were thick.

Narrated Al-A’mash after Mujahid: Luqman was a black huge slave, thicklipped,

and crackedfooted. ‘Umar Ibn Qais said: “Luqman was a black slave,

thick-lipped and cracked-footed. It happened while he was preaching some

people, a man came to him and said: aren’t you the one who used to look after

the sheep with me at such and such place? Luqman said: yes, I am! The man

said: then, what made you of that position? Luqman said: telling the truth and

keeping silent regarding what does not concern me.” (This Hadith was narrated

by Ibn J arir after lbn Hamid after Al-Hakam)

Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by Abu Zar’ ah that he was told by Safwan

after Al- W alid after ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Abu Yazid Ibn Jabir who said: “Allah the

Almighty raised Luqman’s status for his wisdom. A man used to know him saw

him and said: Aren’t you the slave of so and so who used to look after my sheep

not so long in the past? Luqman said: yes! The man said: What raised you to this

high state I see? Luqman said: the Divine Decree, repaying the trust, telling the

truth and discarding what does not concern me. “

Narrated Ibn Wahb: I was told by ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Ayyash Al-Fityani after’

Umar, the freed slave of ‘Afrah as saying: “A man came to Luqman, the wise and

asked: Are you Luqman? Are you the slave of so and so? He said: “Yes!” The

man said: You are the black shepherd! Luqman said: As for my black color, it is

obviously apparent, so what makes you so astonished? The man said: You

became frequently visited by the people who pleasingly accept your judgments!

Luqman said: 0 cousin! If you do what I am telling you, you will be like this. The

man said: What is it? Luqman said: Lowering my gaze, watching my tongue,

eating what is lawful, keeping my chastity, undertaking my promises, fulfilling my

commitments, being hospitable to guests, respecting my neighbors, and

discarding what does not concern me. All these made me the one you are

looking at.”

One day Abu Ad-Darda’ mentioned Luqman the wise and said: He was not

granted wisdom because of wealth, children, lineage, or given habits, but he was

self-restrained, taciturn, deep-thinking, and he never slept during the day. In

addition, no one has ever seen him spitting, clearing his throat, squeezing the

lemon, answering the call of nature, bathing, observing trivialities, or foolishly

laughing. He was very eloquent and well-versed. He did not weep or cry when all

his children died. Finally, he used to frequent the princes and men of authority to

mediate and think thoroughly and find admonition. So, because of all these he

was granted that great wisdom.

Some people claimed that he was offered Prophethood, and that he feared

not to be able to carry out its requirements and obligations. Thus, he chose to

have wisdom for it is easier -this cannot be totally true -and Allah knows best!

'Ikrimah also narrated that: Luqman was a Prophet.1

1This narration is very weak for the sub-narrator, Al-Ja’ fi is mentioned by Imams Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i

among the Weak Narrators.

However, the majority of scholars are of the view that he was a wise man

and not a Prophet. Moreover, he was mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an and was

highly praised by Allah the Almighty Who narrates his advice to his own son in

which he says: {O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily,

joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed},

so he forbade his son and warned him against joining others in worship with

Allah. Imam Al-Bukhari said: I was told by Qutaibah after Jarir after Al-A’mash

after Ibrahim after ‘Alqamah after ‘Abdullah as saying: “When the Verse: {It is

those who believe and do not confuse their belief with wrong (i.e.

joining others in worship with Allah} (Al-An’ am, 82) was revealed, we said:

"0 Allah’s Messenger! Who is there amongst us who has not done wrong to

himself?” He (Peace be upon him) replied: “It is not as you say, for ‘wrong’ in the

Verse and’ do not confuse their belief with wrong’ means ‘SHIRK’ (i.e. joining

others in worship with Allah). Haven’t you heard Luqman’s saying to his son, {O

my son! Join not others in worship with Allah, verily joining others in

worship with Allah is a great wrong indeed}.” (Luqman, 13)

Then, Allah informs us of His advice to mankind to take care of parents. He

states their rights on the children and orders us to be kind with them even if

they were polytheists. But, one should not obey them if they invite him to join

others in worship with Allah. Then Allah resumes Luqman’s advice to his son

saying: {O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of

mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the

earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out

that grain), Well-Aware (of its place)}, i.e. he forbids him to do wrong to

the people even in the slightest way, for Allah will bring it forth and bring him to

account on the Day of Resurrection. Allah Almighty says: {Surely! Allah

wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a small ant)} (An-Nisa’,

40) and, {And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of

Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if

there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient

are We to take account} (Al-Anbiya’, 47) and, he told him if that wrong deed

was equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, or if it was in a solid rock, or

in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth for He knows its exact

place, {Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware

(of its place)}. Allah Almighty also says: {And with Him are the keys of the

Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows

whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He

knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything

fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record} (Al-An’am, 59) and, {And

there is nothing hidden in the heaven and the earth but it is in a Clear

Book (i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)} (An-Naml, 75) and, {the All-Knower of the

Unseen, it will come to you; not even the weight of an atom (or a small

ant) or less than that or greater escapes His Knowledge in .the heavens

or in the earth but it is in a Clear Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)} (Saba’, 3).

As-Sadiy claimed that the rock mentioned in the Verse is that which lies

beneath the seventh earth. But, this claim is totally rejected for the word “rock”

is indefinite and if his claim were true, it would be “the rock”. So, “rock” here

means any rock whatever and not a particular one. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al- Khudri

after Prophet Muhammad (Peace be up9n him) as saying: “If any of you

performs deeds in a solid rock that has no door or hole, his deeds, whatever they

are, will come out (to the public).” Then, Luqman said: {O my son! Aqim-As-

Sa.lah (perform As-Salah)}, i.e. perform it properly and in due time. Then,

he said: {enjoin (on people) Al-Ma’ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all that

is good), and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief in the

Oneness of Allah, polytheists of all kinds and all that is evil and bad)},

i.e. with your full power, with your hand, tongue and if you could not, let it be

with your heart (i.e. reject and resent it). Then, he advised him to observe

patience saying: {and bear with patience whatever befalls you}, for if one

enjoins what is good and forbids the evil, he will probably regarded as enemy to

certain people (but, the final reward would surely be his). For this, he

commanded him to observe patience. {Verily, these are some of the

important commandments (ordered by Allah with no exemption)} that

are inevitable and cannot be neglected.

Allah the Almighty says: {And turn not your face away from men with

pride}, narrated Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id Ibn Jubair, Ad-Dahhak,

Yazid Ibn Al-Asam, Abu Al-Jawza’ and others: This means one shouldn’t be

showy or arrogant.

Allah the Almighty says: {nor walk in insolence through the earth.

Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster}, here, Luqman forbids his son

to strut in his walk. Allah the Almighty says: {And walk not on the earth with

conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the

earth, nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height}.

(Al Isra’, 37) i.e. you will neither be able to tread the whole earth, nor penetrate it

with your fast walking or strong footsteps, nor will you be as high as mountains

with your showing-off or arrogance. So, know yourself well, for you are only a

human being (created to worship Allah Alone). The Prophetic Hadith states:

"While a man was walking, dragging his dress with pride, he was caused to be

swallowed by the earth and will go on sinking in it till the Day of Resurrection.”

(Transmitted by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Sahih) Another Prophetic Hadith states

that: “Beware dragging your dress with pride, for this is boastfulness which is

not loved (liked) by Allah ” Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, Allah likes not

any arrogant boaster}.

After Luqman forbids his son to walk boastfully, he orders him to be

moderate in his walking, saying: {And be moderate (or show no insolence)

in your walking}, i.e. do not walk fast or too slow, rather take a course inbetween,

{And the (faithful) slaves of the Most Gracious (Allah) are

those who walk on the earth in humility and sedateness, and when the

foolish address them (with bad words) they reply back with mild words

of gentleness}. (Al-Furqan, 63) Then, Luqman says: {and lower your

voice}, i.e. if you talk, do not raise your voice very loudly because the braying

of the ass is the harshest of all voices.

Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be

upon him) said: “When you hear the crowing of cocks, ask for Allah’s Blessings

for (their crowing indicates that) they have seen an angel. And when you hear

the braying of donkeys, seek Refuge with Allah from Satan for (their braying

indicates) that they have seen a Satan.” (Transmitted by Imam Al-Bukhari in his

Sahih). For this, it is forbidden to raise one’s voice needlessly. But, raising the

voice with the Adhan (the Call to Prayer) and in the battlefield is permitted.

These are the pieces of advice given by Luqman to his son that are mentioned in

the Glorious Qur’an. Many others have been mentioned in a book titled Hikmat

Luqman (Luqman’s Wisdom). From this valuable book, we cite the following:

Narrated Imam Ahmed that Ibn ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with both of them)

said: We were told by Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) that: “Luqman,

the wise used to say: If anything was entrusted to Allah, He would preserve it.”9

Narrated Ibn Hatim that Al-Qasim Ibn Mukhaimirah reported that Allah’s

Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “Luqman said to his son when he was

advising him: “0 my son! Beware of masking for it is treason by night and

dispraise during the day. “

Narrated Damurah after As-Sariy Ibn Yahia as saying: Luqman said to his

son: “On my son! Verily, wisdom has brought the indigent to the courts of kings.”

9 This narration has a weak sub-narrator in its chain, i.e. Qaz’ah Ibn Suwaid Ibn Hujair AI-Bahili (as mentioned in An-Nasa’i’s Weak and Rejected Narrators)

I was told by my father after ‘Abdah lbn Sulaiman after Ibn Al-Mubarak after

'Abdur Rahman Al-Mas' udi after 'Aun Ibn 'Abdullah as saying: Luqman said to

his son: “0 my son! If you come to a people’s setting, start them with salutation

(Saying As-Salamu ‘Alaikum (Peace be with you)), then, take a side and do not

utter a word till they speak. If you find them observing the Remembrance of

Allah, join them. But, if they observe anything else, turn away from them and

seek others (who remember Allah Almighty). “

I was told by my father after ‘Amr Ibn ‘Uthman after Damurah Ibn Hafs Ibn

'Umar as saying: “Luqman placed a bag of mustards beside him and started to

advise his son, giving him with every piece of advice a mustard till it all ran out.

He said: 0 my son! I gave you advice that if a mountain was given, it would split.

He said: then, his son was as if struck. “

Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: “Take care of the

black men for three from among them are of the people of Paradise: Luqman the

wise, Negus and Bilal (the Caller to Prayer).” (However, this Hadith is odd and

rejected).

Imam Ahmed, in his book Az-Zuhd (Asceticism), mentioned Luqman’ s

biography and many other valuable things. He said: I was told by Waki’ after

Sufyan after an unidentified man after Mujahid as saying: Allah’s Statement:

{And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah}, i.e. wisdom and

religious understanding. He added: he was not a Prophet. The same was

narrated by Wahb Ibn Munabih.

Waki’ told us after Sufyan after Ash’ath after ‘Ikrimah after Ibn ‘Abbas (May

Allah be pleased with him) that he said: Luqman was an Ethiopian slave.

Aswad told us after Hammad after ‘Ali Ibn Yazid after Sa’id Ibn Al-Musaiyb as

saying: Luqman was a tailor.

Saiyar told us after Ja’far after Malik Ibn Dinar as saying: Luqman said to his

son: “0 my son! Take Allah’s Obedience as your trade, and you will gain profits

without having any merchandises.”

Yazid told us after Abul Ashhab after Muhammad Ibn Wasi’ as saying:

Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Fear Allah and do not let the people notice

that you fear Him to gain honor (from them) while your heart is sinful.”

Y azid Ibn Hamn and Waki’ told us after Abul AShhab after Khalid Ar-Rab’i as

saying: “Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who worked as a carpenter. One day,

his master ordered him to slaughter a goat and bring him the most pleasant and

delicious two parts thereof. Luqman did so and brought him the tongue and

heart. The master asked: Did not you find anything more pleasant than these?

Luqman said: No! After a while, the master ordered him to slaughter a goat and

to throw the most malignant two parts thereof. Luqman slaughtered the goat

and threw the tongue and heart. The master exclaimed and said: I ordered you

to bring me the most delicious parts thereof and you brought me the tongue and

heart, and I ordered you to throwaway the most malignant parts thereof and you

threw the tongue and heart, how can this be? Luqman said: Nothing can be

more pleasing than these if they were good, and nothing can be more malicious

than these if they were malignant.”

Dawud Ibn Rashid told us after Ibn Al-Mubarak after Mu’amir after Abu

'Uthman, a man from Basrah, as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Do

not wish for befriending a fool that he may think you approve his foolishness.

And, do not take the wise man’s rage easily that he may abstain from you.”

Dawud Ibn Usaid told us after Isma’il Ibn ‘Ayyash after Damdam Ibn Zar’ah

after Shuraih Ibn ‘Ubaid Al-Hadrami after ‘Abdullah Ibn Zaid as saying: Luqman

said: “Verily, Allah’s Hand is on the mouths of wise men; none of them speaks

but with what Allah assigned for him.”

'Abdur Razzaq told us that he heard Ibn Juraij as saying: I used to mask my

head at night and `Umar said to me: Did not you hear that Luqman had said:

masking during the day is humiliation and at night is dispraise. So, why do you

mask yourself at night? He said: “Luqman was not indebted.”

I was told by Hasan after Al-Junaid after Sufyan as saying: Luqman said to

his son: “0 my son! I have never regretted because of keeping silent. If words

are silver, silence is golden.”

I was told by ‘Abdul Samad and Waki’ after Abul Ashhab after Qatadah as

saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Set apart with evil and it will set

apart with you, for evil begets nothing but evil.”

Narrated Imam Ahmed: I was told by ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Mahdi after Nafi’

Ibn ‘Umar after Ibn Abu Malikah after ‘Ubaid Ibn ‘Umair as saying: Luqman said

to his son when he was advising him: “0 my son! Choose between gatherings (of

people) precisely! If you find a gathering in which Allah is mentioned, sit yourself

with them. Thus, if you are knowledgeable, your knowledge will benefit you; but,

if you are ignorant, they will teach you; and if Allah wishes to do them good, you

will be benefited therewith. 0 my son! Do not sit in a gathering in which Allah is

not mentioned! Because if you are knowledgeable, your knowledge will not

benefit you; and if you are ignorant, they will add to your ignorance; and if Allah

wishes to afflict them with harm, you will be afflicted with them. 0 my son! Do

not rejoice at seeing a strong man who sheds the blood of the faithful, for Allah

appoints for him a killer that does not ever die.”

Abu Mu’awiyah told us after Hisham Ibn ‘Urwah after his father as saying:

"Wisdom dictates: 0 my son: Let your speech be good and your face be smiling,

you will be more loved by the people than those who give them provisions.” And,

he said: “It is stated in the wisdom -or the Torah - : “Kindness is the head of

wisdom.” And, he said: “It is stated in the Torah: “As you show mercy (to

others), mercy will be shown to you.” And, he said: “It is stated in the wisdom:

"You will gain what you give (or, harvest what you grow)." And, he said: "It is

stated in the wisdom: “Love your friend and the friend of your father.”

`Abdur Razzaq told us after Mu’amir after Ayyub after Abu Qulabah as saying:

Luqman was once asked: Who is the best one in terms of patience? He said: It is

the one who practices no harm after observing patience. Those who asked him

said: Who is the best one in terms of knowledge? He said: It is he who adds to

his own knowledge through the knowledge of others. They asked: Who is the

best from among the whole people? He said: It is the wealthy. They said: Is it

the one who has properties and riches? He said: No! But, it is the one if whose

good was sought, he would not hold it back or prevent it. And, it is the one who

does not need anything from others.

Narrated Sufyan Ibn ‘Uyaynah: Luqman was asked: Who is the worst of all

people? He replied: It is the one who does not feel shame if found committing

a sinful deed.

Abu As-Samad told us after Malik Ibn Dianr as saying: I found some pieces

of-wisdom as follows: “Allah Almighty scatters and wastes the bones of those

who give religious opinions that go with the people’s lusts and desires.” And,

"There is no good for you that you learn something new while you do not

practice what you have learnt previously. This is like a man who gathere.d a pile

of dry wood, then tried to carry it but couldn’t. Thereupon, he collected a second

one.”

'Abdullah Ibn Ahmed said: I was told by Al-Hakam Ibn Abu Zuhair Ibn Musa

after Al-Faraj Ibn Fudalah after Abu Sa’id as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0

my son! Let only the pious men eat your food, and consult the scholars over

your affairs.” These were what Imam Ahmed quoted from the wisdom of

Luqman, and I added some that he did not transmit and indeed, he -Imam

Ahmed -quoted things that I did not. And, Allah knows best!

Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by my father after Al-‘Abbas Ibn Al-Walid

after Zaid Ibn Yahya Ibn ‘Ubaid Al-Khuza’i after Sa’id Ibn Bashir after Qatadah as

saying: Allah Almighty enabled Luqman to choose between Prophethood and

wisdom and he (Luqman) preferred wisdom to Prophethood. Then, Gabriel came

while he was asleep and poured the wisdom over him. And, he began to

pronounce it the next morning.

Sa’id said: I heard Qatadah as saying: It was said to Luqman: How did you

prefer wisdom to Prophethood when you were enabled to choose between them?

He said: If Allah were to assign me with Prophethood, I would accept it and try

hard to win His Pleasure, but He enabled me to choose. I feared of being too

weak for Prophethood, so I chose wisdom.

This narration is not perfectly authentic or sound for that sub-narrator, Sa’ id

Ibn Bashir, is not a trustworthy one. However, many from among our earlier

scholars, foremost among whom were: Mujahid, Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyb and Ibn

'Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) were of the viewpoint that Allah's

Statement that reads: {And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-

Hikmah (wisdom)}, means: discretion and religious understanding.

Thereupon, he was not a Prophet and nothing has been revealed to him Al- Wahi

(Divine Inspiration).

Stories of the Quran - Tafseer Ibn Katheer

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